Thyrotoxicosis secondary to thyroiditis following SARS-CoV-2 infection

Keywords: Coronavirus disease-2019, COVID-19, de Quervain’s, SARS-CoV-2, sub-acute, viral thyroiditis

Abstract

Subacute thyroiditis is a granulomatous inflammatory disorder often triggered by a preceding viral infection. Patients typically present with complaints of anterior neck pain associated with a tender enlarged thyroid gland. The coronaviruses have never before been implicated in the aetiology of subacute thyroiditis. It is postulated that the pathogenesis related to thyroid disease in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is multifactorial. Contributory factors include effects of the virus-related cytokine storm and direct action of the virus on SARS-CoV-2 receptors in the thyroid. This article further reviews the association between thyroiditis and COVID-19. The clinical characteristics, diagnostic workup and management of a patient who presented with subacute thyroiditis following COVID-19 are discussed. Furthermore, complications are entertained and suggestions for the management of thyroiditis following COVID-19 are provided.

Author Biographies

A Coetzee, Stellenbosch University

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa

R Bhikoo, Stellenbosch University

Department of Medicine, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa

B Berndorfler, Stellenbosch University

Department of Medical Imaging and Clinical Oncology, Stellenbosch University and Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa

W Conradie, Stellenbosch University

Department of Surgery, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa

J J Taljaard, Stellenbosch University

Department of Medicine, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa

M Conradie-Smit, Stellenbosch University

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Stellenbosch University and Department of Medicine, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa

Published
2021-08-30
Section
Case Study