Hypogonadism and associated risk factors in male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus attending the diabetic clinic of Tikur Anbessa Specialized Teaching Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

  • Sisay Teka Arba Minch University
  • Samuel Kinde Addis Ababa University
  • Gobena Dedefo Addis Ababa University
  • Kissi Mudi Ethiopian Public Health Institute
  • Getahun Tarekegn Tikur Anbesa Specialized Teaching Hospital
Keywords: Ethiopia, hypogonadism, risk factors, type 2 diabetes mellitus, total testosterone

Abstract

Background: A high prevalence of hypogonadism among men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been reported worldwide. This in turn creates a substantial public health burden in terms of inadequate sexual function and potential infertility. However, the status of this health problem is not well established in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study was aimed to assess hypogonadism and its associated risk factors among men with T2DM.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Tikur Anbesa Specialized Teaching Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from February to May 2017 on 115 male patients with T2DM aged 40–80 years. Symptoms of hypogonadism were assessed using the Androgen Deficiency in Aging Men (ADAM) questionnaire. Total testosterone (TT), luteinising hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), fasting blood glucose (FBG) and lipid profiles were measured at the clinical chemistry laboratory of Ethiopian Public Health Institute. Hypogonadism was defined as the presence of clinical symptoms and low TT [TT < 12.1 nmol/l] according to International Society for the Study of the Aging Male. 

Results: Of the total 115 study subjects, hypogonadism was seen in 23.5%, of whom 74.1% and 25.9% had secondary and primary hypogonadism, respectively. TT showed a significant negative correlation with waist circumference (WC) (r = −0.465, p < 0.001), BMI (r = −0.363; p < 0.001), FBG (rho = −0.328, p < 0.001) and TG (rho = −0.357, p < 0.001) respectively but a significant positive correlation with HDL-C (r = 0.339, p < 0.001)]. WC and FBG were independently associated with hypogonadism.

Conclusion: According to our study, visceral obesity and hyperglycaemia were found to be independent risk factors associated with hypogonadism.

The full article is available at https://doi.org/10.1080/16089677.2018.1541668

Author Biographies

Sisay Teka, Arba Minch University

College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Ethiopia

Samuel Kinde, Addis Ababa University

College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Gobena Dedefo, Addis Ababa University

College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Kissi Mudi, Ethiopian Public Health Institute

Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Getahun Tarekegn, Tikur Anbesa Specialized Teaching Hospital

Tikur Anbesa Specialized Teaching Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Published
2019-05-24
Section
Research Articles