Performance of the Androgen Deficiency in Aging Male questionnaire for the clinical detection of androgen deficiency in black sub-Saharan African men with Type-2 diabetes mellitus
Keywords: ADAM, androgen, testosterone, type 2 diabetes, Nigeria, Africa
AbstractBackground: The Androgen Deficiency in Aging Male (ADAM) questionnaire is increasingly popular for evaluation of androgen deficiency (AD) in sub-Saharan African men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). However, its reliability in this population is unknown. Methods: Total testosterone < 8 nmol/L was used as the gold standard for diagnosis of AD in this cross-sectional survey of 200 type 2 DM males aged 30–69 years. Participants also completed the Saint Louis University ADAM questionnaire whereby AD was diagnosed by a ‘yes’ answer to question 1 (reduced libido) or 7 (erectile dysfunction) or any other three questions. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and overall accuracy of the ADAM tool were computed. Results: The mean age of the participants was 58.0 ± 8.8 years. A total of 142 subjects (71.0%) had AD based on the ADAM questionnaire. However, AD was biochemically confirmed in 59 subjects (29.5%). The ADAM questionnaire rendered a sensitivity of 88.1%, specificity of 44.7%, PPV of 50.0%, NPV of 85.7% and accuracy of 61.4%. Conclusion: Despite an impressive sensitivity, the low specificity and overall accuracy of the ADAM questionnaire makes it unreliable for the detection of AD in sub-Saharan African men with type 2 DM. (Full text available online at www.medpharm.tandfonline.com/oemd) Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa 2017; DOI: 10.1080/16089677.2017.1318534
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